CancerMalignant cellular growth consisting of genetically and functionally modified cells capable of invading other tissues.
Cancum agreementIt represent key steps forward in capturing plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to help developing nations protect themselves from climate impacts and build their own sustainable futures.
Carbon creditA carbon credit is a generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide or the mass of another greenhouse gas with a carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e) equivalent to one tonne of carbon dioxide.
Carbon dioxideA minor constituent of air comprising about 0.32% of the atmosphere. It is essential to living systems, released by respiration and to a much lesser extent by volcanic activity and removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis.
Carbon footprintIt is the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere as a result of the activities of a particular individual, organization, or community.
Carbon Monoxide (CO)Colourless gas found in trace quantities in the natural atmosphere and produced by incomplete combustion, notably in motor cars. It forms a stable compound with blood haemoglobin, the carboxyhaemoglobin. It is harmless in small doses.
Carbon sequestrationThe removal and storage of carbon from the atmosphere by green plants through the process of photosynthesis, in which carbon dioxide is combined with water to form carbohydrates that can be stored in plant tissues
Carbon sinkAn area where the rate of carbon uptake by living organisms exceeds the rate of carbon release, so that carbon is sequestered in organic or organic forms.
CarcinogenSubstances that cause or promote the development of cancer (chemicals, ionizing radiations, viruses etc.)
Catalytic convertorIt is a vehicle emissions control device that converts toxic pollutants in exhaust gas to less toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction (oxidation or reduction). Catalytic converters are used in internal combustion engines fueled by either petrol (gasoline) or diesel
ChimneyA vertical channel or pipe which conducts smoke and combustion gases up from a fire or furnace and typically through the roof of a building.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)These are the compounds of carbon and halogens. There are several CFCs being used mainly as propellants in aerosol cans and as refrigerants in refrigerators, deep freezers and air conditioners, and also used in plastic foams.
ChlorosisIt is a condition in which leaves produce insufficient chlorophyll. As chlorophyll is responsible for the green colour of leaves, chlorotic leaves are pale, yellow, or yellow-white. The affected plant has little or no ability to manufacture carbohydrates through photosynthesis and may die.
ChronicA condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects.
Clean Air ActIt is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level. It requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop and enforce regulations to protect the public from airborne contaminants known to be hazardous to human health.
Clean coal technologyAny technology, which will achieve significant reductions in pollutants, associated with the burning of coal.
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)It is one of the flexibility mechanisms defined in the Kyoto Protocol (IPCC, 2007) that provides for emissions reduction projects which generate Certified Emission Reduction units which may be traded in emissions trading schemes.
ClimateLong-term weather conditions and factors peculiar to a given environmental segment/ area due to its geographical situation.
Climate changeAn alteration to measured quantities (Ex: precipitation, temperature, radiation, wind, cloudiness etc) within the climate system that departs significantly from previous average conditions and is seen to endure, bringing about corresponding changes to ecosystems and socio-economic activities.
CoalSolid, combustible mixture of organic compounds with 30% to 98% carbon by weight, mixed with various amounts of water and small amounts of sulphur and nitrogen compounds. It is formed in several stages as the remains of plants are subjected to heat and pressure over millions of years.
Coal gasificationConversion of solid coal to synthetic natural gas (SNG).
Coarse particlesCoarse particles are the relatively large airborne particles mainly produced by the mechanical break-up of even larger solid particles. Examples of coarse particles include dust, pollen, spores, fly ash, and plant and insect parts. Coarse particles have an aerodynamic diameter ranging from 2.5 to 10µm (PM10-2.5), which distinguishes them from the smaller airborne particulate matter referred to as fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine particles (PM0.1).
CombustionThe act or instance of burning some type of fuel, such as gasoline, to produce energy. Combustion is typically the process that powers automobile engines and power plant generators.
ConcentrationAmount of a chemical in a particular volume or weight of air, water, soil or other medium.
Control equipmentAny apparatus, device, equipment or system to control the quality and manner of emission of any air pollutant and includes any device used for securing the efficient operation of any industrial plant
Criteria Air PollutantAn air pollutant for which acceptable levels of exposure can be determined and for which an ambient air quality standard has been set. Examples include: ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, PM10 and PM2.5. The term "criteria air pollutants" derives from the requirement that the U.S. EPA must describe the characteristics and potential health and welfare effects of these pollutants.
CycloneAn air pollution control device that removes larger particles, generally greater than one micron from an air stream through centrifugal force.